Bad Break

Fixing a Bad Break

Up until now all of the granite we have cut and split went perfectly. Today we had a bad break. I was splitting a 31″ long sill for the bedroom and instead of cleaving cleanly the stone crazed off to the side when I attempted to split it from one end. Same thing happened from the other end. My guess is I got the grain wrong – splitting the hard way. I was surprised but then I don’t feel confident yet about picking the grain so it is almost inevitable that eventually I would get it wrong. Fortunately, granite grows wild around these parts…

Rather than tossing the piece of granite we cross cut the projecting ragged portions of the split and I chipped them out with a chisel. A little ugly but that side is hidden in the wall so no matter. We still have the remaining sawn edge for our top of the sill and nice rough edge on the face.

Of note, it is easiest to chip out the cross cuts when the cross cuts go deeper than the plane of the intended surface. This left a very rough surface which would be idea for mortar to get a really good bond. Something to keep in mind for the future…

Wednesday Outdoors: 79°F/54°F Sunny
Farm House: 77°F/64°F
Tiny Cottage: 73°F/68°F Windows open

Thursday Outdoors: 85°F/57°F Sunny
Farm House: 79°F/62°F
Tiny Cottage: 75°F/67°F Windows open

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Mystery Photo July 2007


What is that??? Care to guess? Leave ideas in comments. Here’s the answer for after you’ve thought about it…

Outdoors: 80°F/62°F Sunny
Farm House: 73°F/67°F
Tiny Cottage: 70°F/68°F Miss split bedroom granite sill – oops!

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Calibrating Pain – Fence Testing


In a discussion about fencing someone wrote:

Hi Walter: Thanks for the suggestions. I especially liked this one [for fence testing]: “Best test is to use the tip of your tongue or your nose while standing barefoot in your piss. That’s how a pig does it.

*grin* I’ve never actually tried that method but I’ve watched a pig demonstrate it which is why I figure it is the official way to test fences. Having watched the pig’s reaction I’ll pass.

The other thing is, don’t piss on a hot fence. Just incase you were considering it… I’ve heard people joke about pissing on an electric fence but having observed it I would not recommend it. I’ve seen it demonstrated by a pig and a dog. The pig did it on a 0.8 Kvolt netting fence. It was a gilt and she failed to take into account that her stream sprays out a long ways – she hit the fence about two or three feet behind her. The dog, Saturn, did it on about a 2.0 to 3.0 Kvolt netting fence. He did it on purpose. Both of them lived but they yelped pretty loudly! I don’t think they will do it again. I will be avoiding that method of fence testing as well.

My wife Holly calls me the human fence tester because I often do brush the fence to see if it is hot enough. That may be mostly a thing of the past as I finally bought a digital meter Pakton PowerProbe 11 fence tester. Nice unit. I got mine from http://Kencove.com which is a good source of fencing supplies along with http://Premier1supply.com as well.

Previously I had a simple six light fence tester. It was extremely hard to read in the daylight, even on an overcast day. It was also a good way to get a shock while trying to use it. I ended up adding shrink tube electrical insulation to the ground probe wire and body to reduce the chances of getting shocked. The Pakton is much easier to use.

The Pakton is expensive. The cheapest digital meters I’ve seen start around $40. The Pakton cost $120. The cost is why I haven’t bought a digital fence tester before. It gives direction of fault, volts, amps, requires no ground probe and is only turned on when you press the button so it saves battery. The directional fault finding is a lot more useful and accurate than I thought it would be. I like. The unit is small enough such that it easily slips into my pocket. The Pakton is made in Australia, not China – a point in its favor for all sorts of reasons and probably part of why it is more expensive. I’m hoping that it is also better made and will last.

After using the Pakton fence tester for a few weeks I love it. Much better than licking the fence. It’s even more accurate than my pain meter. I used the Pakton meter to calibrate the Table of Pain below more accurately for those of you who don’t have good meters and will have to resort to hand testing the fence.

Walter’s Tried and True Table of Pain

  1. 0.3 Kvolts (300 volts) is noticeable barefoot. Dry leather shoes will make it unnoticeable to just a tiny tingle. Rubber boots, even cheap ones, make it unnoticeable. In bare feet it is comparable to being bit by a horse fly. You pay attention, would probably rather avoid it but it isn’t that bad and if you want what is on the other side of the fence you’ll brave it.
  2. 1.0 Kvolts (1,000 volts) is noticeable wearing dry leather boots and fairly painful barefoot but possible to hold on. Compare it to being hit by a small rubber band on your cheek. You pay attention quick like and want to not have that happen again but would put up with it for $5 in cash per hit. Pick your personal price.
  3. 2.0 Kvolts is just noticeable in rubber boots, painful in dry leather boots and very painful if you’re barefoot. Compare it to being hit by a large rubber band on your cheek. You pay attention right well and really don’t want that done again! This is about the typical, actual, real world fence reading I get on our fences. Sometimes higher or lower.
  4. 3.0 Kvolts is painful in my rubber dairy muck boots – obviously they’re not perfect insulators. I can hold onto the fence through multiple shocks if I must for some strange reason. I once did two shocks across the chest down to leather boots on wet soil when I fell on the fence. Another time I stood through six shocks from thigh to barefoot when I fell against a fence at this level – it took that long, six seconds, to untangle myself. Not advisable but doable. Definitely memorable. Compare it to being hit with a whip – you’ve had that experience right? Okay, for those who haven’t, it hurts a lot more than a big rubber band. You don’t want it repeated but in an emergency you could withstand it to save someone’s life including your own.
  5. 4.0 Kvolts is really hard to hold on even with most rubber boots, forget it with leather boots or barefoot. Standing on a rock with rubber boots makes this level tolerable if the rock is a little conductive, say it’s damp, or okay if the rock is dry and non-ferrous of course. This is like a wasp sting – the big kind. You’ll feel it for a while afterwards and avoid that fence. It’s a big neon STOP sign.
  6. 6.0 Kvolts and above is very hard to hold onto with rubber boots unless they are perfect insulators (rare). Stand on a rock and it still may hurt badly with conductive rocks. If you were wearing leather boots, rubber boots with holes or barefoot then you’ll be feeling that spark for five or ten minutes after and you’ll remember it clearly for days.
  7. 9.7 Kvolts is the worse spark I’ve gotten – very, very memorable. I touched the unloaded fence switch on the charger side. It was like being hit with a big wasp sting and a well swung 2×4 at the same time. I checked my hand for burns – there was a small one on my thumb about a millimeter in diameter where the shock went in. Dumb mistake. I have not repeated it.

The unloaded 6 Joule K-6 fence charger we use for the main fields runs at 9.7 Kvolts, e.g., when it is not connected to the fencing or if it were a perfect fence with no shorts and wet soil. Today after last night’s rain the energizer is running at 5.3 Kvolts full loaded (connected to all the fencing – about 10 acres perimeter with paddock divisions). That’s measured at the main switch where the underground cable comes up about 50′ from the actual charger. At the far end of the fence about 2,000′ away as the crow flies, further by fence, it is 2.0 Kvolts. Most of our fencing is between 2.0 and 3.0 Kvolts – typical, real world fence voltage with shorting on brush, etc.

All those readings are during a fairly dry Vermont June after last nights rain. That was the first rain in a while, so there is some water in the soil but it isn’t soaked. How dry your ground is will greatly affect things. I’m in Vermont. It is never as dry here as it gets in Colorado, Arizona, etc. I can scuff the soil an inch down during a dry spell and it is still moist, dark dirt.

The secret to electric fences is that they are very high voltages but very low amperage. The fence charger is like a super soaker squirt gun rather than a fire hose – lots of voltage er, pressure, but very little volume of water e.g., current. Amps kill. Volts just hurt. The static electric spark you can generate rubbing your feet across a carpet or a cat in winter may be thousands or even tens of thousands of volts but it has very little current so it just hurts. Tell that to the cat.

Why does all of this matter? Electric fences are primarily a psychological barrier. The animals rarely actually touch them. The pigs, dogs and sheep seem to learn what fence looks like and just avoid it after they’ve messed with it once or twice. Animals must be trained to electrical fencing – don’t just turn them out on pasture. An animal can accidentally or even learn to rush through a fence. That rushing through the fence can also happen if they are spooked and stampede. If you start with poorly charged fences that are not strung tight and at the right wire heights then animals will learn to escape instead of stay in.

It is a very good idea to keep the fences turned on as much as possible. If you leave the fence off then animals may learn that it is off and challenge it. They do listen to the sparks on brush, feel the field with whiskers, push a friend into the fence to test it, etc. I’ve watched pigs test a fence in all of the above manners. Best for the fence to be on. The fence also turns back predators to a large degree although it is not enough. Combining electrical fencing with livestock guardian dogs (LGDs) is the best solution.

Another issue is that some animals, like our thickly furred dogs, feathery chickens and sheep with long fleeces won’t get shocked by a low voltage. They are well insulated. The voltage determines how far the spark will jump. If the voltage is too low then an animal can just slide right through the fencing without getting shocked.

Another thing the dogs do is they leap through fences. That way when they’re touching the fence they’re not touching ground so they don’t create a path for the voltage. Putting the lines closer together and having them strung tight helps on this. Using alternate hot-ground wires might help and is relevant for coyote control in particular.

I use Daisy Strainers [1, 2] to tighten our high tensile wire fences. For the polywire I just pull it tight by hand. Animals are far more respectful of tight fences than they are of loose fences.

Training the dogs to respect the boundaries also helps. This takes time but is worth it. Our dogs can easily jump any field fence I can afford to build so over building the fence is not the solution – thus I train them which fences they are allowed to jump and which are boundary fences.

For chickens and piglets, poultry netting [1, 2] works wonders – clip the bottom two horizontal wires at the end post leads to prevent shorting.

The most important thing about fencing is to have what the animals need inside the fence. Keep the scary stuff like bears, neighbor’s dogs, etc outside the fence. Inside = good. Outside = bad. Then the animals naturally tend to stay inside the fence lines.

Last thought, if you have deep snows in winter like we do then build higher fences. We have 4′ high fences that vanish come winter…

Outdoors: 78°F/53°F Sunny, 1/4″ rain
Farm House: 74°F/64°F
Tiny Cottage: 70°F/68°F Form work Test Arch 2

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Marvin Windows In


That is not a Marvin window. While we were taking a break from working on the cottage this afternoon Will spotted three huge birds. At first we thought they were hawks but I think they were buzzards, not something we see very often around here. I’m guessing on that ID – if you know better, please leave a comment as to what they are. They circled the valley a few times and then drifted down the valley towards the Connecticut River.

Last night and this morning Holly and I put in the two double-hung, open-able Marvin windows. These provide both ventilation and egress in our tiny cottage. One went in the bathroom and one in the master bedroom. I had avoided putting these windows in up until now because I was worried about breaking them as we worked around them. On the other hand I desperately wanted to put them in and see how they looked, to be able to vent the cottage, any excuse would do… The fact that the cottage, all sealed up with no ventilation this summer has been running at a very comfortable 68°F to 72°F rather limited my excuse for putting in the windows.

So… I found another excuse, they were in my way of doing other work! :) I also need them in now as we’re starting to do the granite window sills and interior parging around the windows. More reasons to get them in, have the breeze blow through, see out and enjoy the view as we work.

The windows went in very easily on to the cedar sills and frame we had set into the concrete block wall. The fact that we had already gotten the concrete and the sill work perfectly plumb and level made doing the windows that much easier. The windows are now on their cedar sills, perfectly level and straight. Gosh, darn it they are beautiful! I want to thank my dad who gave us a check for Christmas “to spend on the cottage.” That paid for the windows. Either one of the two cost more than all of our other huge windows put together since I had gotten the other windows as salvage from an office building and these Marvin windows are brand spanking new. At almost $400 each they represent one of the most expensive parts of the cottage. In fact, that makes these two windows come to almost 20% of the total cash we’ve spent so far building our new house. Eek! Now you understand why I’ve been so hesitant to install them sooner!

The Marvin windows are Low-e, Argon filled, double-pane, thermo-glass, aluminum clad on the exterior and all that good stuff. The sashes run beautifully smoothly up and down their tracks and can tilt inward for cleaning. I had debated going with a triple-paned windows instead of the double-paned but didn’t. We will have shutters to buffer the worst nights of winter, the windows are inset from the winds and I may make a removable winter storm window as well.

All of our other windows so far are large, non-opening panes for solar gain. In our climate it makes sense to have sealed windows and controlled air flow because of the long cold winters. These new Marvin windows and the door will provide cross ventilation. We’ll also have a stack effect up a separate chimney flue and earth air tubes to bring in fresh air passively warmed by the geothermal energy in the winter – something I’ve already tested in our old farm house.

Up until now the cottage has been sealed up tight except when we’ve been going in and out yet it has stayed comfortable. I left the bedroom window open last night as there was no rain and the bathroom window opening was completely open since we had not yet installed that window in the west wall. As the temperature record below shows, the cottage was a little cooler than when it was closed up tight in the past. Interestingly it still had the same minimal dynamic range of temperatures night to day and it didn’t come anywhere near the low and high of the outdoor temperature. That’s really good news. The enormous thermal mass of the house is working as an energy sink that keeps the house cool during the day and warm at night in the summer. In the winter it will keep us warm along with a little wood burning for cooking.

Update 20140407: I’ve been very unhappy with these Marvin windows and would not buy them again. The double glass does not keep the cold out, we get frost on the inside, the frames conduct considerable cold inward causing condensation and they freeze shut in the winter. I build far better windows myself and will return to building my own.

Outdoors: 87°F/51°F Sunny
Farm House: 70°F/62°F
Tiny Cottage: 69°F/65°F Marvin Windows installed

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Glass Wall


A local pub has been graciously donating their wine bottle collection to our tiny cottage construction project. Well, actually, they were over joyed to have us hauling away their empties for the last several months. Another freebie salvage item for our new recycled home.

What I wanted was glass blocks to do some parts of the cottage such as in the bathroom. Glass blocks turned out to be horribly expensive. I saw the stacks of wine bottles and realized, I could use them to make glass block walls. Not only would they be inexpensive but the bottles came in all sorts of beautiful colors from clear to blue to red to green and other parts of the rainbow. Some of the bottles are big, some are small. With a little cutting work we’ll have our glass block wall for the bathroom and attic knee walls at almost no cost.

Outdoors: 73°F/54°F Sunny
Farm House: 72°F/64°F Weaning Piglets
Tiny Cottage: 72°F/67°F Doorway Arch Test

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Baby Birds

This is the mother bird of the baby birds pictured below, I think. It could be the father bird. They built a nest of moss and fine twigs in the rafters of our hay shed near the atrium garden and we’ve been watching them.

The baby birds are growing amazingly fast. Between when I took this photo and now, just a matter of days, the young birds have already flown the nest. I was surprised at how quickly they matured and were ready to go.

Will has more about the birds on his blog.

I’m not a ‘birder’ and don’t know many species so I don’t know what kind they are, perhaps you do and can leave the name in comments…


Outdoors: 70°F/52°F 3″ Rain
Farm House: 62°F/72°F
Tiny Cottage: 72°F/68°F Form work for doorway arch test

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Solar Powered Thermometer


While salvaging some junk equipment we scored two cool digital thermometers that are solar powered! It’s a great idea. No batteries to replace. The thermometer only needs to operate when there is light so the fact that it only operates in the light is fine. Smart design!

On that same salvage we also got two large triple pane heavy windows. I’ve not figured out what I’ll do with them, perhaps they’ll become more cold frames to extend our growing season in the spring and fall. They are tempered glass so no cutting them!

Outdoors: 62°F/58°F 3″ Rain
Farm House: 66°F/59°F
Tiny Cottage: 71°F/68°F

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Day Lily

West Topsham Post Office Day Lily

It has been quite a week. June was very dry and the first half of July more than made up for it. We got so much rain that our road got washed out to a large degree twice – thank you to Johnny & Wally on the town crew for fixing it back up! Far worse was in Barre, Vermont where they had major road wash outs and much of the town was flooded. We didn’t see it in person, having avoided going in town during that time, but the photos looked quite bad. Apparently someone’s home got lifted away and 1,600 feet of road and town sewer lines got washed out. Yuck!

The blessing of the rain is that the gardens and fields needed it – they’re lush green now and the ponds are full again.

Past week: Outdoors: 85°F/59°F 9″+3″+6″+1″ Rain over the week mixed with sun
Farm House: 77°F/61°F
Tiny Cottage: 72/68°F Tank wall granite all placed, doorway arch forming

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New Little One on Her Knee

I hadn’t realized Holly was with child and then all of a sudden, there I saw on her knee a new baby. Hope has a new little brother! A double take no less. It looked like a baby. Just for a moment. So I drew eyes, nose, mouth and hair. Ah, that was better. Holly Kneeded that. :)

For a another view of this funny visit Ben’s blog.

Aye, we’re silly people!

Outdoors: 83°F/53°F Mostly Sunny, 1″ Rain Thunder Storm
Farm House: 70°F/77°F
Tiny Cottage: 71°F/66°F planning, modeling, curing

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A Week of Food

1 Week Food

United States: The Jeffries family of Vermont
Food expenditure for one week: $65
Favorite foods: chili, soup, pork, eggs, spaghetti
Click for larger view.

Above is a weeks worth of food. Sort of. Some of the items like the flour, rice and spices are in too great a quantity but I didn’t see a good way to display them as recognizable things in the actual quantity we use in a week.

Presenting a weeks worth of food was an interesting challenge because we actually only go shopping about once every three months and buy a lot of things in bulk. There are some things we buy at a shopping trip, like one pound of fish which get eaten right away but are so small when figured weekly (1 lb / 10 weeks = 1/10th lb) that they don’t show on a table spread very well – I used a few shrimp to represent the fish. Another stumbling block is that what we eat is highly seasonal. In the winter we eat hot foods to warm us including a lot of soups, stews, chili and such that we canned in the fall and early winter, cabbage, meat, potatoes, hot cocoa, hot mint tea, etc. In the summer months we eat cooler meals including a lot of fresh veggies from our gardens, foraged berries, eggs, cold mint tea, etc. In the spring and fall it is also different.

This project was inspired by the Time Magazine article “What the World Eats” which was based on the book “Hungry Planet“. The article showed pictures from fifteen families in various countries around the world. Each picture show the family as well as all the foods they ate in a week and gave their weekly food budget.

The average weekly food expense was $180 with many of them falling in the $300 to $500 range. The variance in budgets was extradinary. That average is biased downward by two families that spend $5 and $1 per week – one of whom is in a refuge camp. Unfortunately the article did not correct for variations in local economies and buying power so the numbers should be taken with a grain of salt. It would have been interesting to have a number showing how the spending relates as a percent of income. Also, prices for things vary greatly between countries as well as between urban and rural areas. Additionally, the families they chose may or may not really be representative – the other two USA families [1, 2] eat very differently from each other and very differently than our family. Diversity is beautiful.

Still, it was a great photo essay and not meant as a scientific study. Our family had fun studying the photos in Time as well as making our own list and photo.

Our weekly food budget is $65 for a family of five. That comes to $1.85 per person per day or 62¢ per meal per person per day – there is some variation with a summer low of about $50/wk and a late winter and early spring high of about $80/wk as we get low on foods we’ve grown. The budget includes seed we buy to grow much of our veggies. Almost all of our meat, a big expense, as well as our eggs come from animals we raise ourselves at almost no cost since we pasture raise them. I included an allotment in our budget for winter hay for the animals. Prior to raising our own animals we ate very little meat due to the cost and health concerns with factory raised meats. We also forage for berries much of the summer, canning and freezing them for the rest of the year. Dairy is our single largest expense as we drink a lot of milk, eat quite a bit of cheese and use butter, yogurt, cottage cheese, sour cream, etc. Gotta get a cow – or goats!

One of the things that struck me from the photos was not how different the foods were but how similar they were from country to country. Looking through the photos in the article we noticed that it seemed most of the families were living in urban areas so that in and of itself may account for some of the uniformity of foods. I was also surprised at how many people bought water. The family from the Time article that was the closest to our family was the Batsuuri family of Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Ironically their budget also came close to ours at $40/week.

Since it is rather hard to see from a photo what is there, even when clicking on the image above to the larger version, I have made a list of everything:

Item Quantity Notes
Milk 4 gallons Gotta get a cow!
Yogurt 1 quart More in summer
Butter 1 lb
Cream 2 oz
Sour Cream 4 oz
Cream Cheese 4 oz
Cottage Cheese 1 lb
Cheese 2 lbs Cheddar, Blue, Swiss, Goat, Mozzarella, etc
Eggs 48 Less in winter when hens don’t lay less
Bread 2 loaves
Corn Muffins 20
Biscuits 20
Cereal 1 lb Hot in winter, cold in summer
Spaghetti 2 lbs
Egg Noodles 2 lbs
Crackers 1/2 lb
Graham Crackers 1/8 lb Bonfire cookout smores!
Rice 8 cups
Barley 3 cups Lamb or mutton soup
Couscous 2 cups
Lentils 2 cups
Beans 4 cups Fresh in season, Dry in winter in chili or soup
Peas Dried 2 cups In soups
Bacon/Sausage 2 lbs Breakfast with eggs
Ground Pork 2 lbs Sausage, chili, stew, etc
Pork Cuts 5 lbs Ham, Loin, Ribs, etc
Chicken/Duck 1 lb Generally soup or stewed
Lamb 1 lb Leg, rack, loin, soup or stew
Bones 3 lb Soup and broth
Beef 1/4 lb Bought
Pepperoni 1/10 lb Mostly as topping on pizza
Shrimp/Squid/Fish 1/10 lb Few times a year
Berries 2 quarts Seasonal types, canned, jammed, jellied, sauced or frozen in winter
Melon 1 Seasonal type and availability
Bananas 3 Seasonal
Apples 9 Some Seasonality
Pears 2 Some Seasonality
Orange/Grapefruit 1 Seasonal
Grapes 1/4 lb Seasonal
Raisins 1/2 lb On salad, cereal or yogurt mostly
Canned Fruit 1/4 lb Winter replacement
Basil 1 cup Mostly as fresh spice or pesto
Cabbage 1 head Winter salad greens, sauerkraut, slaw
Lettuce 2 heads Seasonal
Broccoli 2 head Seasonal
Carrots 8
Beets 3 Fresh in summer, canned or soup in winter
Radishes 5 Highly seasonal
Cucumber 1 Seasonal
Onion 6
Leeks 1 Seasonal
Chives 1/8 cup Seasonal
Tomatoes 8 Fresh in season and from store or canned
Peas 2 cups Seasonal fresh, canned in soup or frozen
Corn 2 cups Seasonal fresh, canned in soup or frozen, corn bread
Squash 2 cups Seasonal – Zucchini, Summer, Pumpkin, Winter, Acorn, Butternut
Mushrooms 1/4 cup canned from store
Celery 3 stalks
Potatoes 20 Soup, Fried, Mashed, Refried, Stew, Thickener
Waterchestnuts/Bamboo 1/10 cup
Garlic 18 cloves Vampires beware
Pickles 5 Winter mostly
Relish 3 oz
Olives 1 cup
Olive Oil 2 quarts
Salt
Pepper
Cayenne
Cinnamon
Ginger
Curry
Coriander
Bay Leaves
Black Pepper Corns
Red Pepper
Rosemary
Cloves
Thyme
Dill
Parsley
Chili Peppers
Ketchup
Mustard
Hot Mustard
Mayonnaise
Horseradish
Worcestershire Sauce
Soy Sauce
Tabasco Sauce
Chili Pepper Sauce
Rhubarb
Strawberry Sauce 1 cup
Strawberry Jam 1 cup
Peanut Butter 1 cup
Nuts 1 lb
Sunflower Seeds 1/4 cup
Maple Syrup 1 cup
Honey 1/2 cup
Sugar 4 cups Baking and cooking
Molasses Baking and cooking
Baking Soda
Baking Powder
Wheat Flour 10 lbs Baking and cooking
Corn Flour 5 lbs Baking and cooking
Other Flour 2 lbs Baking and cooking
Chili 3 quarts Canned in fall and winter mostly
Soup 6 quarts Canned in fall and winter mostly
Bullion 6 cubes
Ramen 1
Jello 1
Taco Corn Chips 8 oz
Black Tea 8 cups Hot in winter or cold summer mornings
Mint Tea 3 gallons 2.5 oz dry leaves. Hot in winter, cold in summer
Lemon Aid 2 gallons (Lemon Juice) Hot in winter, cold in summer
Cocoa Powder 8 oz Winter Hot Chocolate
Coffee Powder 2 oz Winter Hot Chocolate
Juice 1/2 gallon Mostly summer
Soda 2 liters
Candy Bar 4 oz
Chocolate Chips 1 oz
Ice Cream 1/4 gallon
Smoked Oysters 1/4 tin
Marshmallows 5 Bonfire Cookouts

If you missed it see the “Kitchenwares for a Week” post which I had done just before the Time article came out. That was part of why I found their article so fascinating. If you haven’t seen the Time article do go check it out and possibly the book as well. A great homeschool session for all ages.

So, what is one week of food for your family?

Outdoors: 70°F/54°F Overcast, 5″ Rain, Thunder Storms
Farm House: 71°F/68°F
Tiny Cottage: 70°F/68°F bathroom planning

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